When exploration moves to a more intensive phase to determine if deposits of economic minerals are present. Advanced exploration activities can include: stripping and trenching and drilling.
Chemical symbol for silver.
A chemical test performed on a sample of ores or minerals to determine the amount of valuable metals contained.
Chemical symbol for gold.
The costs of mining, milling, general expenses on-site, royalties, commercial discounts and commercial expenses less the net value of the by-product credits.
Set of measures designed to ensure that mining operations are developed and operated with a sound strategy and the financial resources necessary for the closure of the operation. A closure plan must include a guide to deactivate, stabilize, and perform long term surveillance of waste management units or facilities.
Discussions and negotiations between employers and representatives of workers or workers’ organizations for the purpose of determining working conditions and terms of employment by joint agreement.
A social group possessing shared beliefs and values and a continuous interaction. It may be defined geographically, by political or resource boundaries, or socially as a community of individuals with common interests.
It is a product from treatment of mineral. It is a process of separating metal from valueless host rock. In a concentrate, the abundance of a specific metal is higher than in the ore.
Cylindrical sample of rock taken from the ground by diamond drilling for research and exploration purposes.
Extracting exposed gold or silver grains from crushed or ground ore by dissolving it in a weak cyanide solution.
A natural occurrence of a useful mineral ore in sufficient extent and concentration to be profitably mined.
An activity ranging from confirmation of a mineral deposit to the decision to build a mine.
Unrefined gold and silver bullion bars, usually consisting of approximately 90% precious metals, which are to be further refined to almost pure metal.
The operation of making deep holes with a drill for prospecting, exploration, or valuation.
The discharge of a pollutant from a facility or industrial process in a liquid form.
A document outlining the environmental effects of the project prepared by the proponent of a project and presented to decision makers and the public.
The systematic endeavour of searching for and evaluating potentially concentrations of minerals. Exploration is considered to encompass those activities involved in área selection, discovery, definition, economic and technical evaluation of mineral deposits, beginning with conceptual planning and extending through reconnaissance, prospecting, ore deposit identification and measurement, environmental and social baseline surveys for impact assessment, and ending with the initiation of financial feasibility studies.
The process of mining and removal of ore from a mine.
An estimate based on commercial considerations that include project investment, operating and maintenance costs together with relevant costs for managing and mitigating environmental and social impacts that establish whether a project is economically viable or non viable to the proponent.
A method of mineral concentration, usually of sulphide ores, by which valuable mineral particles adhere to froth bubbles for collection as a concentrate; waste particles remain in the slurry for eventual disposal as a tailing.
That part of a mineral resource for which quantity, grade, densities, shape and physical characteristics can be estimated with a level of confidence sufficient to allow the appropriate application of technical a nd economic parameters, to support mine planning and evaluation of the economic viability of the deposit. The estimate is based on detailed and reliable exploration and testing information gathered through appropriate techniques.
That part of a mineral resource for which quantity and grade can be estimated on the basis of geological evidence and limited sampling and reasonably assumed, but not verified, geological and grade continuity. The estimate is based on limited information and sampling gathered through appropriate techniques from locations such as outcrops, trenches, pits, workings and drill holes.
The 2004 Australasian Code for Reporting of Exploration Results, Mineral Resources and Ore Reserves as published by the Joint Ore Reserves Committee of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Australian Institute of Geoscientists and Minerals Council of Australia.
The use of cyanide in water, or other chemical, that is applied on top of finely crushed ore to dissolve and extract the desired metal (typically gold or copper).
Number of years that an operation is planning to mine and treat ore as indicated by the current mine plan.
Excavation in the earth from which ores and minerals are extracted.
An inorganic compound occurring naturally in the earth’s crust, with a distinctive set of physical properties, and a definite chemical composition.
The economically mineable part of a measured or indicated mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, economic and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified.
A concentration or occurrence of material of intrinsic economic interest on the earth’s crust in such form and quantity that there are reasonable prospects for eventual economic extraction.
A mine working or excavation open to the surface. Also referred to as open-cut or open cast mine.
Mineral bearing rock.
An exposure of rock or mineral deposit that can be seen at the surface because it is not covered by soil or water.
Chemical symbol for Lead.
Any of several relatively scarce and valuable metals, such as gold, silver, platinum and palladium.
An estimate of commercial considerations made on the basis of proven ore reserves, conceptual designs for mining and processing, and probable operating and capital costs that establish whether a project is economically viable or non viable.
The economically mineable part of an indicated and, in some circumstances, a measured mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, costs, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction can be justified.
The economically mineable part of a measured mineral resource demonstrated by at least a preliminary feasibility study. This study must include adequate information on mining, processing, metallurgical, costs, and other relevant factors that demonstrate, at the time of reporting, that economic extraction is justified.
These charges are commonly used in the concentrate commercialization for refining. It is paid by the miner or seller of concentrate to a smelter and it is designed to cover refining costs.
A primary vertical or non-vertical opening through mine strata used for ventilation or drainage and/or for hoisting of personnel or materials; connects the surface with underground workings.
Chemical reduction of a metal from its ore by fusion.
An accumulation of rock gathered or piled in one area.
Refers to the ratio of the volume of overburden (or waste material) required to be handled in order to extract some tonnage of ore.
Material rejected from a treatment plant after the recoverable valuable minerals have been extracted.
Tailing ponds are areas of refused mining tailings where the waterborne refuse material is pumped into a pond to allow the sedimentation (meaning separation) of solids from the water.